Tianjin, known as “Jin”, is one of the four municipalities directly under the China's central government.
It is an economic center in the Boghai-rim Region, the largest coastal open city in the north of China, as well as a city of great historical and cultural significance. The name of Tianjin, which means “Emperor's port”, was adopted in the first year of Yongle Reign in Ming Dynasty. In the second year of Yongle Reign(1404), Tianjin became a walled garrison and began to be known as “Tianjin Wei”. In 1860 Tianjin was opened as a trading port.
In the 1930s, it became the largest industrial and commercial city and financial center in the north of China. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Tianjin became a municipality directly under the central government. After China adopted the policy of reform and opening in 1978, Tianjin became one of the first coastal cities to open to the outside world.
Today, the city function according to the central government has been designated as becoming an international harbor city, economic center in north China, and an ecological city. The administrative region of Tianjin covers an area of 11,760 km2, with a registered population of 9,490,000. It has jurisdiction over 15 districts and 3 counties. It is 120 km away from Beijing , the capital of China, and serves as the gateway to the latter. Tianjin enjoys a rich supply of land and mineral resources, with more than 20 kinds of minerals worth mining. In addition, the terrestrial heat resources in Tianjin are widely available. Tianjin is also the birthplace of modern machinery industry in China. At the beginning of the 20th century, Tianjin was the second largest industrial city in China.
Ever since then, Tianjin has undergone rapid development in industry. So far, a perfect industrial system has taken shape, with eight advantageous industries as its pillars, including aviation and spaceflight, electronic information, petrochemical industry, automobile, metallurgy, biotechnology and modern medicine, new energy sources and modern manufacturing. As one of the first cities to open to the outside world, Tianjin has an excellent environment for business and investment. Up till now, among the top 500 world leading enterprises, more than 120 have invested in Tianjin. With the involvement of Binhai New Area in the national development strategy , Tianjin has become an area with the greatest attraction for investors and the highest investment profit rates in China.
As far as the educational resources are concerned, Tianjin is also the birth place of the first modern university in China—Tianjin University. Nankai University, Premiere Zhou Enlai's alma mater, is as famous as Tianjin University. Now, there are 45 institutes of higher learning in Tianjin, with a total of more than 350,000 registered students. Besides, there are over 140 independent scientific research and technological development institutions. The public owned enterprises and institutions have more than 400,000 professional technicians and 33 academicians, including 15 CAS academicians and 18 CAE academicians.
In terms of culture and arts, Tianjin is famous for its culture and arts in north of China. The local folk arts are varied. The colorful Yangliuqing New Year Paintings, vividly colored sculptures of Clay Figurines of Zhang Family, impressive well-designed kites of Weis etc,. are outstanding representatives of the folk arts of Tianjin. In museums and memorials scattered in Tianjin, you will find 570,000 pieces of cultural relics, including some rarities which deserve to be recognized as national treasures. As a modern cultural metropolis, Tianjin claims possession of many top-rated cultural facilities such as a 415-meter-tall TV and radio broadcasting tower, an internationally first-rated convention and exhibition center, the largest modern book edifice in China, and Jinwan cultural square etc,. The elegant metropolitan culture is becoming more and more prosperous in Tianjin.
The history of Tianjin 600 year's development has cultivated the distinctive features of the city proper, integrating the modern with the ancient, the west with the east. There are numerous tourist resources and a wide variety of scenic spots. To make full use of its tourist resources, Tianjin has designed a cultural tourist activity known as “ To Understand Modern China Through Tianjin”, which consists of 12 parts. Eight tourist products are integrated and developed as a whole, including the Tour along Haihe River, Tour in Coastal Area, Tour in Mountains, Tour of Celebrities' Residence, Tour of Famous Museums, Tour of the Red Memory, Tour along Famous Relaxation Streets, and Tour of Folk Culture.